solanum viarum tamil name

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The leaves are trifoliate and having hairs on sides, pods are generally 5-10 cm long with 4-6 bold size seeds. Solanum khasianum var. sustain the global market share, special efforts by way of Research Solanum wallacei (A. INVASIVE ALIEN SPECIES . Jackson, MS: Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of Plant Industry. The harvested crop should be spread over open field area in a thin layer to reduce its moisture. Bot. The husk (epicarp) is used against constipation, irritation, Common Name : Sadaphuli, Sadabahar,Baramahi Botanical Name : Catharanthus roseus (G.) DON Family : Apocynaceae Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (G) Don) is a perennial herb having height of 30-90 cm. The roots of this herb have great medicinal value due to saponin content and are used extensively in Ayurvedic medicines. chatterjeeanum Sengupta & Sengupta; Solanum reflexum Schrank (1819) Solanum viridiflorum Schltdl. It has become naturalized in many parts of the world, including India. It has an errect stem with flexible long branches bearing leaves. 1852; Ansari, Fl. Solanum lycopersicum var. Cannanore Dist. There are 14 different species out of which, Mucunapruriens is medicinaly more important. The leaves are ovate to lobed with spines on both the sides, the white flowers are hermophrodite, borne on axillary clusters. The length of root varies from 10 to 25 cm. cerasiforme (Dunal) Spooner, ... Tamil. Family : Solanaceae Solanum virum is a stout, branched, woody shrub, 1.0-1.5 m tall with spines on stem and leaves. Arts College, C. Mutlur, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India. are maintained as distinct species. ex Kurz Family : Apocynacease It is a small, errect, evergreen, perennial, under-shrub, and 65 to 95cm in height. Inside the fr… The black berry fruits are considered toxic. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruit. In any event, the source must be explicitly quoted. Pubescent shrubs, prickles recurved, to 7 mm long. Chatterjeeanum, Sengupta; family Solanaceae. Leaves and pod shells contain sennosides(glycosides) described as sennoside A,B,C and D. Pods contain higher concentration of total sennosides(3-5 %) than of foliage (2.5-4.0 %). A general description, with any kind of information about the taxon. Distribution notes: Exotic. May also be referred to include anatomy. Fruit berry, globose, about 2.5 cm in diameter, yellowish. & Sivar., Fl. Food habit and feeding pattern of Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in Rajiv Gandhi O... However, when it is grown as a semi-irrigated crop, the yield increased considerably. Powered by the open source Biodiversity Informatics Platform. Seeds are pinkish-gray brown, translucent and concavo-convex. It is being cultivated in Gujrat, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu. per hectare under rain fed conditions and `45,000/- under irrigated FRLHT's ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants:, Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. India 3: 411. 10.1007/s42690-020-00293-7. Comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation. and pods are `40 per kg. Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America, Miscellaneus: notes attached to the taxon information. It is systematically cultivated in Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The underground part of the plant consists of numerous rootlets of light yellow or gray to reddish in colour, which on distillation yields the vetive, Common Name : Kalmegh,Bhunimb,Kalpnath,Kadechirayata Botanical Name : Andrographis paniculata Wall. ... Solanum viarum Dunal. 574. year to year. Nair, Fl. Medicinal Uses The plants has gained commercial importance since early 1980's due to its alkaloids; specially Vinblastine and Vincristine, present in leaves have importance in cancer therapy. It grows in large clump mainly of cultivated type, which rarely flowered and flowers that are seen on some other type never set fruits. Leaves and fruits are eaten as vegetable, also considered medicinal. Its main goal is summarize the most relevant or attractive characteristics of this taxon to the general public. Solanum chloranthum DC. 1988; Sasidh. Preferred Scientific Name. Brit. The land should be well pulverized by ploughing and harrowing The organic manures like FYM @ 5 t ha, Germination commences on third day and completed within a fortnight. Solanum viarum Dunal in DC., Prodr. The weed bares white flowers with yellow centers or stamens, which become green and white stippled fruit resembling that of tiny watermelons. var. தக்காளி preferred. Dunal Family : Solanaceae It is found throughout drier parts of India. Roots are prominent, tap root reaching up to 50 cm deep, usually branched, 0.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. Inflorescence lateral, few flowered. It is common bitter tonic prescribed for  children in liver troubles. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; 2n = 24), commonly known as brinjal, aubergine, or guinea squash, belongs to the Solanaceae family and is included under the genus Solanum, one of the largest genera covering more than 1550 species (Chen, 1997). Botanical Name : Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida it is found in drained swamp pasture land. Wild edible plants of Assam. It occurs in strand swamps, floodplain swamps and scrub brush. Cultivation of senna cost `8,000/- and gives `20,000/- net profit ), associated mostly to vertebrates. It contains a colloidle mucilage (30%), mainly consisting xylose arabinose, galacturonic acid with rhamnose and galactose etc. Gray) Parish. Solanum virginianum L. Solanum viride Spreng. 1996; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. Pl. Family : Solanaceae Solanum virum is a stout, branched, woody shrub, 1.0-1.5 m tall with spines on stem and leaves. A stout undershrub with young parts densely yellowish hirsute and prickly. The plant is 3-6 ft tall. Jebanesan.A, M.Baranitharan,K.Kovendan and Pasco.B.Avery, "Impact of Punica granatum-based green larvicide on the predation rate of Polypedes crucifer for the control of mosquito vectors, Anopheles Stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera :Culicidae). Forage productivity can be greatly reduced as a result. it is a cross pollinated having fruits of 6.00 mm diameter much enclosed inflated calyx and turns red at maturity. The plant is found growing in a wild state, certain coastal parts of Gujarat especially in the Bhuj region of India. excellent biomedical application, from Solanum viarum. Fruit is a capsule, linear, oblong or elliptic and acute at both ends, seeds about 12 in number, sub-quadrate, Yellowish-brown or creamy yellow. Venugopal, B. S. Somashekhar, M.V. Corolla 1.5 cm across, lobes lanceolate. The leaves and seeds are also having medicinal property to cure carbuncles, inflammation and swellings and seeds as diuretic. The generic name is believed to be derived from the latin ‘solamen’ meaning comfort, and to allude to the reputed narcotic properties of the generic type Solanum nigrum L. Solanum species, which are often called Nightshades, exhibit considerable morphological diversity and a range of ecological preferences. indigenous to the Mediterranean region and West Asia, it has been introduced in India and cultivated especially in Gujarat and some parts of Rajasthan. There are two types of kawach bij, one is black seeded and on touch irritation persist and another is white seeded having fine hairy structure, commonly found at foothills of Himalaya, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerla, Andhra Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, Maharashtra, Anandaman and Nicobar. It includes published material or suggestions from the author or others. tropical soda apple; Other Scientific Names. Solanum khasianum var. Botanical Name : Solanum viarum Dunal. SYNONYM (S) : Aculeatum L. ( Aculeatum Group) ‘Merlingiana a Pummadora’, Solanum aethiopicum L. ( Aculeatum Group) ‘Italian Orange’. Known or potential benefits of the species for humans, at a direct economic level, as instruments of education, prospecting, eco-tourism, etc. The leaves are ovate to lobed with spines on both the sides, the white flowers are hermophrodite, borne on axillary clusters. Heavy rains and cloudy weather during growth are harmful to the crop. great domestic and international demand. 157-159. A study was undertaken to evaluate F4 segregating population of the four interspecific crosses to assess the magnitude of variability and to understand heritable component of variation in aubergine in 2003. They are not seasoned, usually appeared from 35-70 days after sowing depending on the time of sowing which fallowed by pods formation. COMMON NAME: Kantkari ,Bari Kateri, Kandiari, Ban - Bhindi. A rapid mechanical drying at 40. Tropical Soda Apple). Common Name : Khasi Kateri, Ranwangi, Dorli etc. Cultivation Sol, Common Name : Asgandh, aguri Asgandg, Punir,Dhor gunj and Winter Cherry. Thrissur For. It can be propagated by seeds. Venkatesan.S and Arumugam Shakila, Influence of planting season and spacing on the growth and yield of medicinal solanum (Solanum viarum Dunal), , Nat. 2 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Pest Quarantine. (i.e. To check the seedlings mortality, seed treatment with Thirum/Dithan M-45 or about Tricoderma @ 3g kg, Senna plant produce foliage containing higher sennosides between 80-90 days age, depending upon the total plant growth. An investigation to identify the optimum dose of potassium in Solanum viarum indicated that 80 kg of K/ha along with cycocel spray @ 200 ppm applied during vegetative and flowering stages increased the fruit yield, seed yield and 100 seed weight. and S ... Taxonomic Study on the Wild Species of Genus Solanum L in the Southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Flowers are white in terminal spikes. Senna could be economically grown under rainfed conditions. No major insect pest and diseases is noticed on this crop. Synonym: S. rubrum Mill. Stud. Tropical Soda Apple (TSA) is a toxic pan-tropical medicinal plant native to southeastern Brazil. Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem. This alson induces the plants to produce more of branching. Native to Brazil and Argentina, tropical soda apple weed is a member of the Solanaceae or Nightshade family, which also contains eggplant, potato, and tomato. Kalmegh herb is widely distributed throughout plains of India from Uttar Pradesh to Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Kerala. Hence, grown only on well-drained soils. This herb is a thorny creeper that grows in bushes. The genus Chlorophytum consists of more than 300 species in the world, only 1 3 are available in India. It is also a host of several diseases and pests of commercial crops. Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat. to `47 crore in 2019-20. Wayanad Dist. It is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate parts of the world (Kumar, 2009). Senna is cultivated commercially in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Dear Friends, Came across this plant near Ramghal (Helwak region). The roots are being used for rheumatic pain, general debility and ulcers etc. General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). FRLHT's ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants, Bengaluru. Medicinal and Perfumary uses It is an aromatic grass plant. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta is reduced to S. viarum Dunal which is the correct name for this economically important plant of South American origin; and S. reflexum Schrank and S. platanifolium Hook. Reply Gayatri November 5, 2015, 4:38 pm ENGLISH : Italian orange eggplant. The flowers are greenish yellow usually 5 together in sub sessile umbelli form cymes. Article. In India, eggplants rank fourth in vegetable production, … The crop can thrive on a variety of soils like light texture soils marginal lands with better drainage, but is largely grown on sandy loams, red loams, alluvial loams with the average pH range from 7 to 8.5. Tamil Nadu, India. The leaves are large; compound pinnate, petiolate about 10 cm long and bear 5-8 pairs of leaflets each on a small stalk. Fruit is a cylindrical follicle with small black seeds. Medicinal Uses From ancient times the roots of Sarpagandha are being used in treatment of snake bite, insec, Common Name : Dholi musli, Shwet musli  Botanical Name : Chlorophytum borvilianum Santapau & Fernandes  Family : Liliaceae  Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borvilianum) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal herb. Describes biorhythms - those states or conditions characterised by regular repetition in time, whether on the scale of seconds, hours, days, or seasons. The roots possess high alkaloid concentration (1.7-3.0%). Kindly validate the ID. Botanical Name : Withania somnifera (Linn.) and 800 kg pods per hectare in irrigated condition can be harvested. 313. Selected Plants for leaf extract Scientific Name : Solanum viarum Dunal Common Name : Tropical Soda Apple Solanum viarum Dunal, belongs to the family Solanaceae, commonly called Tropical Soda Apple (TSA) is a shallow rooted, profusely branched, perennial shrub. Family : Solanaceae Solanum virum is a stout, branched, woody shrub, 1.0-1.5 m tall with spines on stem and leaves. It takes 10-12 days to dry completely. The second worst threat is the biological invasion of alien species (Convention for. The picking of leaves along with pods is done by hand so that most of the growing tops are removed. Soil and Climate Ashwagandha grows well on variety of soils with good dra, Common Name : Ispaghal, Ishaagola, Spogel seed, Blond Psyllium Botanical Name : Plantago ovata Forsk. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta, Bull. The inflorescence is a many-flowered corymb with white or pinkish, often tinged with violet. On an average about 600-700 kg dry leaves and 300 kg pods per Medicinal Uses The seed husk is the commercial part and is separated by physical process. Also includes information referring to territorial extension of the individual or group in terms of its activities (feeding, mating, etc. Solanum aethiopicum L. (Aculeatum Group) 'Melanzana Rossa di Rotonda’. There are two varieties of the plant, one bears black fruit other red fruits. Habit: Shrub Cymes 3 or 4 flowered, peduncle to 2 cm long; pedicels 1.2 cm long, elongates to 2 cm in fruit. Berry globose, 3 cm across, yellow. The seeds are covered with a translucent membrane, known as husk having medicinal use. Can include ecosystem services. Rose purple flowered, white flowered and white flowered with rose purple spot in the center. Common Name : Khasi Kateri, Ranwangi, Dorli etc. It could also cover phenomena such as "plant flowering" or "chewing rates". An average rainfall of 250-400 mm, distributed from june to October is sufficient to produce good crop. Solanum carolinense (Family: Solanaceae) was observed Kambainallur Block in Dharmapuri District and Vadavalli Block in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. Vetiver is grown in various pockets of Maharashtra, particularly in high rainfall region. Senna is a natural product used as laxative since ages and have a These steroidal compounds have anti-inflammatory, anabolic and antifertility properties. Solanum villosum Mill. Dry summer  with moderate temperature is suitable for the crop. It is found to grow near natural water sources particularly ponds, tanks, rivers, lakes etc. In Southern part of India, especially in Tamil Nadu, most people will eat leaves of Solanum viarum, Solanum ciliatum, Solanum carolinense, which is useful for Cold (Flu) treatment. Curated for upload by Pranjal Mahananda. The market prices are highly fluctuating In India it is found in the Foothills of Himalayan range, up to the elevation of 1300-1400 m and almost throughout all over the country, Lower hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, and Jammu & Kashmir. Gujarat in about more than one lakh hectare area in semi-arid regions. Germany, Hungary, Japan, It is very sensitive to water logging. total sennosides in the world market. It grows well in the hilly areas particularly of Khasia and Jaintia hills (Assam) in North East and Nilgiri hills of South India. and Development and Product application has to be initiated for The bark is pale brown, emits acrid aroma and bitter taste. Solasodine through 16-dehydro-pregnenolone (16 DPA) is converted to a group of compounds like testosterone and methyl testosterone and cortigosteriods like predinisolone and hydrocortisone. Family : Plantaginaceae Isabgol is the Rabi season crop of 30-35 cm tall, short-stemmed annual herb. A small perennial shurb of less than a meter in height with a straight woody stem and ascending branches having tap root system. 1985; Ramach. Surv. Solanum viarum Dunal (1852) Preferred Common Name. In some parts Mucuna pachylobia and Mucuna whilis used as animal feed and for vegetable purposes, respectively. Kerala: Kannur, Kasaragod, Thrissur Pubescent shrubs, prickles recurved, to 7 mm long. Sumanth, Noorunissa Begum, Sugandhi Rani, Surekha K.V., and Nikhil Desale. BOTANICAL IDENTIFICATION: It is an erect shrub, seldom reaching more than 70cm in height. Seasonal migration and reproduction are usually treated separately. 2016. 1126-1135. A textual diagnostic description of the species that is not necessarily structured. Solanum khasianum Clarke in Hook.f., Fl. Also used in intermittent and remittent fevers. Calyx lobes lanceolate, pubescent, 5 mm long. Common Name : Khasi Kateri, Ranwangi, Dorli etc. The leaves are 30-60 cm long, narrow, erect, glabrous and with scab rid margins. ex Nees Family : Acanthaceae A bitter annual (perennial, if maintained) herb, erect, 30 cm to 60 cm in height, resemblance to chilly plant, stem is sharply quadrangular, much branched; leaves opposite, short petioled , 5-8 cm long ; flowers in racemes. Telugu. English: sodom apple | Mucuna Medicinal Uses Kawach beej seed containing principally L-DOPA, glutathion, leuthin gallic acid, glycosides, nicotine and dark brown colour oil. These are  I .Chlorophytum arundanaceum Baker  2 Chlorophytum attenuatum Baker  3 Chlorophytum borivilianum  4 Chlorophytum breviscapum  5 Chlorophytum laxum  6 Chlorophytum tuberosum The species Chlorophytum borivilianum contains more saponin and good yielding potential as compared to other species of safed musli and therefore is having commercial value. The roots of the plants contain important alkaloids Ajmalcine that has anti-fibrillic and hypotensive properties. India 4:234.1883, var. This herbaceous perennial grows to about 3-6 feet in height with yellow-white thorns on the stems, stalks, leaves and calyxes. 2Department of Zoology, Govt. *Email: Article History: Received 20th Nov,2013, Accepted 29th Nov,2013, Published 16th December2013 1.INTRODUCTION Solanum viarum is a member of the economically important Chidambaram, Manibharathi Publishers, New No. 13: 240. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. Family : Gramineae Khus is densely tuffed perennial grass grows up to 2.0 m high, It is found throughout India in open marshy places. Solanum viarum, is a wild perennial herb. 253. al., 2009). Hierarchy contributed by the species page author, Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, Default IBP taxonomic classification, based on Catalogue of Life, State - Kerala, District/s: Kasaragode, Kannur, Thrissur, Wayanad, | Sale price of leaves are `20 India exports senna leaves and pods and there About 5-6 light irrigations are enough to raise a good crop of Senna, however, heavy irrigations badly affects the crop. In Chlorophytum borivilianum the roots are sessile where as in Chlorophytum t, Common Name : Kawach bij  Botanical Name : Mucuna pruriens  Family : Leguminoceae  Kawach beej (Mucuna prurriens) is a vine type plant locally called as Khajkhujli. During rainy season the small seedlings of musli are found naturally in the forests areas., (Hint :- add multiple references separated by a line break (hit Enter)). Solanum: Solatium viarum Dunal; Syn. conditions. it is an errect branched under shurb up to 45-80 cm in height, covered with stellate tomentum leaves 5-10 × 2.5 to 5.00 cm ovate with 6 to 13 mm long petiole. However, to Technology partner Strand Life Sciences, Flowering class: Dicot Kingdom: Plantae Order: Solanales Family: Solanales Genus: Solanum Species:nigrum Latin name: Solanum nigrum Linn. and steroidal lactones(Withanolides). There are three distinct cultivars or variants viz. It is an exotic plant and it is grown in Tinnevelly and Ramnathpuram district of Tamil Nadu. ( / The fruits are small with a seed inside turns black at maturity. Flowers about 1 cm across. Botanical Name : Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants, which include three food crops of high economic importance, the potato, the tomato and the eggplant (aubergine, brinjal). senna and its extracts. Recognized by Wikidata. Example: tree, shrubs, herbs. May be referred to as or include habit, defined as the characteristic mode of growth or occurrence associated to its environment, particularly for plants. It Is found throughout India in all warmer parts on wasteland and sandy tracts, especially in the costal areas. Flowers 2-3 in cymes, axillary and terminal clusters. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), also referred to as TSA, is a non-native, invasive weed that forms very dense infestations, especially in pastures. 2009. is a continuous rise in the export from `24 crore in the year 2005-06 Life cycles are treated in the field for Life Cycle. Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. The extracts protect alcohol induced toxic effect on liver tissue and accelerate intestinal digestion and absorption of carbohy. Ovary tomentose. Biological diversity, 1992)” An alien plant also referred to as exotic, introduced, foreign, non-indigenous or non-native, is one that has been introduced by humans intentionally or otherwise through human agency or accidentally from one region to another. Improved Varieties Arka sanjivani and Arka mahima, Glaxo strain, Pusa-1, RRL 20-2 are improved varieties of the Solanum virum. hectare under rain fed condition and about 1500-2000 kg dry leaves ", International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Volume 40, Number 4, Dec 2020, pp. Best supported on Google Chrome, Firefox 3.0+, Internet Explorer 8.0+, Safari 4.0+, Opera 10+. This is one of the most medicinal plants in this study. It is regarded as an Solanum viarum . Leaves alternate, to 12 x 8 cm, ovate, irregularly shallowly lobed, sinuate, base obliquely truncate, densely tomentose on lower surface and less on upper surface; petiole to 5 cm long; spines mostly on petiole and … 1961. India is the largest producer and exporter of senna leaves, pods and In most Year, the crop needs no irrigation except under the condition of prolonged drought. The husk has the property of absorbing and retaining water. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) identification and control. However, benefits to ecosystems not specific to humans are best treated under Risk statement (what happens when the organism is removed), Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, G. Renu, Sanjana Julias Thilakar, D. Narasimhan, Centre for Floristic Research, Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Tambaram. International Common Names. The Solanum family of plants is a large genus under the family umbrella of Solanaceae that includes up to 2,000 species, ranging from food crops, such as the potato and the tomato, to various ornamentals and medicinal species.The following entails interesting information about the Solanum genus and types of Solanum plants.. Information about Solanum Genus TSA is also one of the most endangered plants in Florida right… The roots are compact and light brown in colour. BOTANICAL NAME: Solanum viarum Dunal. Senna leaves and pods are used in medicine, as a cathartic . Figure 2: Solanum trilobatum plant. in the districts of Bhandara, Chandrapur, Gaddiroli in M.S. Medicinal uses Ashwagandha root contain alkaloids (Withanine, Somniferin, etc.) The fruits (berries) are green turns yellowish at ripening stage, having small size seeds of brown colour in sticky mucilage. Looks like Solanum viarum? The leaves are thin, in whorl of three, eliptic-lanceolate. ITALIAN : Melanzana rossa. Photos: see our Catalogue "Eggplants of the world ". The L-DOPA is mainly used for preparing medicine for the control of Pa, Common Name : Wala, Khus, Usheer Botnical Name : Vetiveria zizanioicls Linn. The pods are slightly curved, 3.5-6.5 cm in length with 1.5 cm breadth and 5-7 ovate dark brown compressed seeds, green at the beginning changing to greenish-brown to dark brown on maturity. 317. Leaves alternate, to 12 x 8 cm, ovate, irregularly shallowly lobed, sinuate, base obliquely truncate, densely tomentose on lower surface and less on upper surface; petiole to 5 cm long; spines mostly on petiole and midrib and few on lateral nerves, to 2 cm long, straight. Describes the general appearance of the taxon; e.g body plan, shape and color of external features, typical postures. The dried leaves and pods should have light green to greenish yellow colour. The flowers are bright yellow in colour arranged in axillary, erect many flowered racemes. Neetharland and USA are the major markets of senna. Enumerates geographic entities where the taxon lives. Solanum viarum Fruit Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Solanales Family: Solanaceae Genus: Solanum Species: S. viarum Binomial name Solanum viarum Dunal Synonyms See text Solanum viarum, the tropical soda apple, is a perennial shrub native to Brazil and Argentina with a prickly stem and prickly …

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